When night falls, three changes occur to the eyes. One, humans' color vision worsens; two, it becomes difficult to focus close-up; and three, peripheral vision improves. When human's ancestors moved around in the dark, they didn't necessarily need to see details, but they did need to know if someone (or something) was sneaking up on them.
How Human Eyes See in the Dark
When it becomes dark, the pupil begins to dilate to allow more light into the eye. It takes approximately fifteen minutes for the pupil to dilate completely. In the back of the eye, the retina takes on a purplish tinge as the color-sensitive cone cells of the daytime sight start to recede. The light-sensitive rod cells around the edges of the retina become active. Forty-five minutes pass before the visual purple or Rhodopsin, the pigment of the rods, saturates the rod cells, resulting in the highest-quality night vision.
Night Vision in Animals
Since the rod cells of the eye's light-catching retina are sensitive to even dim light, the eyes of many nocturnal animals are packed with rod cells. Most crepuscular (active at dawn and dusk) and nocturnal animals can see well enough at night to find and catch food, flee from predators and navigate around objects.
Many nocturnal animals have only a few color-sensing cone cells because there is usually not enough light present for color to be detected at night. The lighter colors by day, such as reds and yellows, appear as darker grays at night, whereas blue, which is not a bright during the day, appears as a brighter shade of gray after dark. Human eyes are especially sensitive to blue at night.
Animals whose eyes seem to glow in the dark have a reflective layer of tissue called the tapetum lucidum at the back of the eye, behind the retina. Light bounces off the tapetum lucidum to increase the eye's efficiency in low light levels. A bright light, like a flashlight, reflects off the animal's eye, the creature's eyes seem to glow. Each kind of animal has eye shine of a particular color.
Test People's Night Vision
Create a pirate patch and place it over one eye for at least forty-five minutes while remaining outdoors in bright light. When the time is up, go into a darkened room, such as a basement. Remove the patch. Alternate opening and closing one eye at a time. The eye covered by the patch still has its night vision. The dark room will appear bright compared to the eye that has moved from bright light into the dark.
Partners stand arms' length from one another and stare at each another's nose. A partner's face should appear to disappear, although the person's hat/hair and jacket will remain. The cone cells in the center of the eye pick up color. At night, the human eye can't see color so by looking straight ahead, the cells can't pick up the color of the person's face and is seems to vanish.
Seeing Color at Night
At night, take a walk or play outside in a spot where there is little light. After twenty-to-forty minutes, hand out index cards and crayons with the wrapper removed. Participants write down their name and the color they believe the crayon to be on the index card. Collect the crayons and cards. Players find out if they are correct when they go inside where there's light.
With a few activities, children can learn about how humans and animals can see at night. Children can explore their night vision, the improvements in their peripheral vision and the decrease in their color vision.
Aromatherapy of Rome candles - although they are quite incredulously overlooked by many - are one of the most popular types of candles in the world. Aromatherapy of Rome candles are considered to produce possibly the most sultry and smoldering scents of Ancient Rome, as they are inspired by the 9th century Italian thermal springs of Abano. These Aromatherapy of Rome candles use aromatherapy to create an aura of relaxation and restoration upon the user.
These candles benefit incredulously by evoking the serene and therapeutic calm that is hard to find in today's fast-paced world, and they blend a mixture of essential oils which thus creates that of a consistently wonderful product. These candles are designed specifically to be strong enough to just the right intent, in that they are not too weak and yet not so overly powerful and strong that they are annoying or bothersome.
There are many different types of Aromatherapy of Rome candles to choose from, including: Balance candle, with lavender; meditation candle, with patchouli and ylang ylang; Reflective candle, with honeysuckle and lemon; Sensuous candle, with ylang ylang and nutmeg; Relaxation candle, with lavender and tangerine; and the Serenity candle, with chamomile and honeysuckle. There are also Aromatherapy of Rome frosted jar candles that you can purchase.
Where Can I buy Aromatherapy of Rome Candles?
There are many locations available that offer these candles, and the best way to find the location nearest to you would be by using the Internet. This is because the speed and the efficiency of the Internet will allow you to easily and quickly find exactly what you are looking for. All you really have to do is go to a search engine online, such as Google, and type in Aromatherapy of Rome candles and then the location in which you live beside it; hit enter and watch hundreds or more results pop up right in front of your eyes.
If you like, you can even stay online the entire time and order them directly off of the Internet; generally these days all companies have a website from which you can order to anywhere in the world. Ordering off the Internet can make things incredibly easier, mainly because of the fact that there may be a store that you absolutely love but it's halfway across the world. You might never have been able to shop there before, but with the Internet, you can.
The same applies for these candles, and will all of the locations that are available today that offer these candles in particular, it can often seem arduous and rather frustrating simply trying to decide which to shop at. However it does not have to be this difficult, and by simply taking a little bit of time and consideration, you will be able to choose what option is best for you.
A man checks condoms at the AIDS-awareness display at an exhibition in Shanghai March 2, 2006.
CHICAGO (Reuters) - The number of Americans newly infected with syphilis has fallen for the first time in a decade, but sexually transmitted diseases continue to take a staggering toll on the United States, with 19 million new infections each year at a cost of $17 billion annually.
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's annual report on sexually transmitted diseases, which tracks cases of the three reportable STDs -- chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis -- shows widespread disparities.
Overall, blacks and Hispanics in the United States are far more affected by sexually transmitted diseases than whites, as are young people, according to the annual report, which looks at data from 2010.
"Despite everything we know about how to prevent and treat STDs, they remain one of the more critical challenges in the United States today," Dr. Kevin Fenton, director of the CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, said in a telephone interview.
While people aged 15 to 24 make up just a quarter of the sexually experienced population in the United States, they represent nearly half of all new infections.
"The data really confirms that STDs primarily affect young people, and we know that this is of major concern because the health consequences can and do last a lifetime if they are untreated," Fenton said.
The report also found a disproportionate burden of disease among African Americans and Hispanics, Fenton said.
For example, he said rates of chlamydia among African Americans are about 1,383 per 100,000, compared with 467 per 100,000 among Hispanics and 166 per 100,000 for whites.
There are similar patterns for gonorrhea and syphilis.
For gonorrhea, rates for whites are 26 per 100,000. Among Hispanics, rates are about three times that at 63 per 100,000, and among African Americans, the rates are 512 per 100,000.
And while overall rates of syphilis have fallen, there are still wide disparities across ethnic groups, with rates ranging from about 2.4 per 100,000 for whites, 5.9 per 100,000 Hispanics and 20 per 100,000 for African Americans.
"It's not because someone is black or Hispanic or white that results in the differences that we see in STDs. It's really what these represent in terms of differences in health insurance coverage, employment status, in ability to access preventive services or curative services. These are all factors which are going to have a huge impact on communities as well as individuals who are vulnerable to acquiring STDs or not getting them diagnosed early," Fenton said.
Here are some details on each disease:
* Gonorrhea -- Overall, rates of gonorrhea rose slightly in 2010 to more than 300,000 cases, but the disease remains at historically low levels.
* Chlamydia -- Reported cases have risen over the past 20 years, but that is due to expanded screening efforts. In 2010, there were 1.3 million reported cases of chlamydia. CDC says fewer than half of sexually active young women are screened for chlamydia.
* Syphilis -- The overall rate fell for the first time in a decade, falling 1.6 percent in 2010 compared with a year ago. Rates of syphilis fell 20 percent in women, but rose 1.3 percent among men.
The CDC says it is too early to tell whether this is a blip, or the start of a new trend.
In the past five years, syphilis rates among young black men increased 134 percent, driven by sharp increases among young black men who have sex with men. This is especially worrisome because rates of HIV are also rising among this population.
If left untreated, gonorrhea and chlamydia cause infertility, and syphilis can lead to serious long-term complications, including brain, heart and organ damage.
People with any of these diseases are at greater risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus or HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
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